You may have not noticed it, but the use of local content requirements (LCRs) has gone up for years. They are used by developed as well as developing countries. LCRs aim to promote the use of local inputs. They also serve the purpose of fostering domestic industries. BRICS and many other emerging countries are frequent users of LCRs, together with the US.
However, LCRs can be highly damaging for the economy. While LCRs might have the perceived benefit of creating industry activity and local employment, these gains or often generated in the short-term. LCRs are most likely to have a damaging economic impact that is wider in the long run. This harmful impact therefore evolves over time, which eventually outweighs any specific short run gain they can create.
ECIPE’s new study with undersigned contribution estimates the damaging impacts of LCRs for BRICS countries. Our team has translated their negative effects into so-called ad valorem equivalents (AVE). This is a methodological concept that allows one to readily compare the adverse impact of any non-tariff barrier (NTB) such as an LCR with a tariff. Our study has taken LCRs in the heavy vehicle sector as a case in point.
The results are presented in the figure below. They show that Brazil and Russia apply the most distortive LCRs for heavy vehicles. The two countries have an estimated increase of their import price of 15.6 and 11.1 percent respectively. China and South Africa both show low AVEs of 4.5 and 3.3 percent respectively. India’s LCRs are least harmful as it shows an AVE estimate of 2.2 percent.
Source: ECIPE calculations, based on ECIPE LCR BRICS database; WITS/UNCTAD TRAINS